Press "Enter" to skip to content

Propofol (Intravenous Anesthetic ) Complete Drug Review

Propofol (Intravenous Anesthetic ) Drug Review

Properties:

  • It is available as 1% and 2% milky white colored solution which is compatible with dextrose.
  • It contains soyabean oil so the injection is always painful.
  • Xylocard 1 % is added to the mixture of propofol to reduce the pain at the injection site .
  • The Propofol mixture contains:
  • a) 1% propofol
  • b) 10% soyabean oil
  • c) 2.25 glycerol
  • d) 1.2% egg phosphatide
  • e) Edeate
  • f) 1.2 % egg phosphate
  • g) 0.005% disodium
  • The chemical formula of Propofol is Alkyl phenol 2,6 diisopropyl phenol
  • PH: 7
  • Pka: 10.76
  • It is availabe as milky white solution.

MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA)

  • It acts by binding on the sub unit of GABA receptor .
  • It decreases the release of acetylcholine in hippocampus and prefrontal lobe .

DRUGS DOSE AND FEATURES 

  • Dose : 2 mg per kg body weight
  • Onset of action  : 15 sec
  • Duration effect of unconsciousness: 2-8 min
  • Half life : 2-3 hours

EFFECTS ON THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (CVS)

  • Bradycardia is more common
  • Propofol causes peripheral vasodilatation more than Thiopentone sodium.
  • It does not causes Tachycardia.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (RS)

  • Propofol is a respiratory depressant .
  • Propofol is also a bronchodilator .
  • It depresses the reflex of upper airway.
  • It is the drug of choice for the day care surgeries.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)

  • It is a anticonvulsant .
  • It causes sedation , amnesia and hypnosis.
  • It decreases intra cranial pressure (ICP)
  • It is also an anti emetic
  • It does not causes analgesia .
  • It causes Apnea commonly and acts for longer duration than the Thiopentone .
  • Recovery is faster than the thiopentone.
  • It can cause hallucinations and sexual fantasies after induction

COMPLICATIONS OF PROPOFOL

  1. Propofol Infusion syndrome(PIS)
  2. Pain at the injection site

1.Propofol Infusion syndrome 

  • Propofol infusion syndrome usually occurs in children’s., It is a life threatening condition .
  • PIS may cause
  • – Cardiomayopathy
  • – Skeletal myopathy
  • – Hepatomegaly
  • – Failure of free fatty acid metabolism
  • – Hyperkalemia
  • – Acute cardiac failure
  • – It can also cause pancreatities in adult.

2.Pain at the injection site 

  • Propofol causes pain at the injection site.
  • The pain can be reduced by adding 1% Xylocard (1ml) per 10 ml of propofol solution .
  • Now a days propofol comes along with the local anesthetic added in it  eg. Spiva 2%
  • To avoid the complications larger veins should be used while injecting the drug .
  • The reason for the pain is Kallikrein pathway is activated.

Propofol is the drug (IV anesthetic) of choice for the following

  • For the day care surgeries.
  • Malignant hyperthermia.
  • Porphyria
  • Sedation in the ICU
  • For performing minor sedation cases like endoscopy
  • Renal failure.
What you have to say about this article? Share your views 🙂

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *